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SONNETS / BALLADS / LIMERICKS / PANTOUMS / SESTINAS  / VILLANELLES

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Rhyming patterns are referring to the rhyme at the end of lines,
so all 'a' lines rhyme with each other and all 'b' lines rhyme with each other and so on.

Rhythm patterns are made by the emphasis that goes on the syllables when spoken.
Below are two tables outlining the types of rhythm pattern.
(For best results, this stress should be the natural emphasis that would used in speech.)

A light hearted 'lecture' on writing traditional children's poetry by L. Tilander
 
 

NAMES OF METRICAL FEET:


Iambic weak  strong
Trochaic strong weak
Anapaestic weak  weak  strong
Dactylic strong  weak  weak
Amphibrachic weak  strong  weak

 

NAMES OF LINES OF POETRY:


Monometer one metrical foot per line
Dimeter two metrical feet
Trimeter three metrical feet
Tetrameter four metrical feet
Pentameter five metrical feet
Hexameter six metrical feet
Heptameter seven metrical feet

 
 

LIMERICKS
Humorous metered poems of five lines with this rhyming pattern: aabba
The metre is usually in this form of syllabic stress:
Lines 1,2 and 5: weak strongweak weak strongweak weak strong
Although the first metrical foot is usually only 'weak strong'  it could be 'weak weak strong' It therefore has three anapaestic metrical feet - anapaestic trimeter.
Lines 3 & 4: weak strong, weak weak strong - one less metrical foot -anapaestic dimeter
 

DOUBLE LIMERICKS
Both the rhyme pattern and the meter are extended into ten lines:
Rhyme:ababccddab
Rhythm:
Lines 1,2,3,4,9,10 - anapaestic dimeter
Lines 5,6,7,8         - anapaestic monometer
 
 
 

ITALIAN SONNETS (Petrachan)
Sonnets are lyrical descriptions.
The Italian sonnet has 2 stanzas, the first of 8 lines the second of 6 lines.
Iambic pentameter is the most common metre used.
- Five metrical feet to the line in this format:
weak strong, weak strong, weak strong, weak strong, weak strong)
Rhyming pattern abbaabba cdecde  OR abbaabba ccddee
 

SHAKESPEARIAN SONNETS
The same metre (iambic pentameter)
One stanza of 14 lines
Rhyming pattern: ababcdcdefefgg
 

SPENSERIAN SONNETS
As the Shakespearian sonnet but with this rhyming pattern:
ababbcbccdcdee.
 
 

TRADITIONAL BALLADS
Usually  tell a story.
Iambic heptameter - 7 metrical feet with this syllabic stress:
weak strong, weak strong, weak strong, weak strong, PAUSE weak strong,
weak strong, weak strong
-Fouteen syllables to the line with a pause after the eighth.
Rhyme pattern: aabbccdd  and so on. No defined length

AUSTRALIAN BUSH BALLADS
These are stories told with an Australian background and dry wit to match
The rhyme and rhythm are the same as in traditional ballads
or with shorter lines (Tetrameter  -eight syllables and trimeter -six syllables to the line)
 

PANTOUM
   A poem in a fixed form, consisting of a varying number of 4-line stanzas with
   lines rhyming alternately:
the second and fourth lines of each stanza are repeated to form the first and third     lines of the succeeding stanza,

with the first and third lines of the first stanza forming the second and fourth of the last
stanza, but in reverse order, so that the opening and closing lines of the poem
are identical.

SESTINA
A fixed form consisting of six 6-line (usually unrhymed) stanzas in which the end words of the first stanza recur as end words of the following five stanzas in a successively rotating order and as the middle and end words of each of the lines of a concluding envoi in the form of a tercet. The usual ending word order for a sestina is as follows:
First stanza, 1- 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6
Second stanza, 6 - 1 - 5 - 2 - 4 - 3
Third stanza, 3 - 6 - 4 - 1 - 2 - 5
Fourth stanza, 5 - 3 - 2 - 6 - 1 - 4
Fifth stanza, 4 - 5 - 1 - 3 - 6 - 2
Sixth stanza, 2 - 4 - 6 - 5 - 3 - 1
Concluding tercet:
middle of first line - 2, end of first line - 5
middle of second line - 4, end of second line - 3
middle if third line - 6, end of third line - 1

Below is an example ...my one and only effort at this!
The Write to Work... a sestina

The rain suggests a rest, from 'work' abstain
And set the mind to indoor 'calm' pursuit
Exchange a shovel for a pen in bliss
Release the words, all scrambling wistfulness
Some music inspiration then recruit
Until the verses form their own refrain

record an aching need in bold refrain
Uncover, let no secret wish abstain
Raw courage let some summer wine recruit
In this brave, self-examining pursuit
Reveal desires, hopeful wistfulness
For self expression is a writer's bliss

Describe remembrance of a heartfelt bliss
A moment memorised in life's refrain
Return, relive the joy in wistfulness
Let time and other barriers abstain
From fading old elation's hot pursuit
Revitalise, eloquence recruit

diz

VILLANELLE
i DON'T HAVE THE INSTRUCTIONS FOR A VILLANELLE AT THE MOMENT BUT HERE IS MY ONE ATTEMPT ...you should be able to work out the rhyming pattern by studying it!
A Date with Time  - a villanelle

Come middle age! There's no accepting fate
Let yesterdays be broken links to pain
Let present moments never be too late!

Pursue expression, find a style innate
A yearning passion that will never wane
Come middle age! There's no acepting fate!

Rejoice in lovers' friendship, celebrate
Release those still all wrapped in loving chain
Let present moments never be too late!

Be pensive, muse, demur and meditate
Reflection in a sane and sanguine vein
Come middle age! There's no accepting fate!

With open arms we welcome wisdom's state
Embrace an insight gradually more plain
Let present moments never be too late!

Believe in growth, this will invigorate
And ward off ebbing energy's grey reign
Come middle age! There's no accepting fate!
Let present moments never be too late!

diz
 
 


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